Mit freundlicher Genehmigung von Rhein Fire, die mir die Spielregeln von Ihrer alten Seite (als es die NFL-Europe noch gab) überlassen haben. Allerdings. Als Anfänger werden Ihnen die meisten kleinen Unterschiede zwischen der Profiliga NFL und der. American Football hat eines der umfangreichsten Regelverstöße und die Strafen nach den NFL-Regeln.
The goal umpire then waves flags above their heads to communicate this information to the goal umpire at the opposite end of the ground.
The team that has scored the most points at the end of play wins the game. If the scores are level on points at the end of play, then the game is a draw; extra time applies only during finals matches in some competitions.
As an example of a score report, consider a match between Essendon and Melbourne with the former as the home team. Essendon wins the match by a margin of 13 points.
Such a result would be written as:. The home team is typically listed first and the visiting side is listed second. The scoreline is written with respect to the home side.
For example, Port Adelaide won in successive weeks, once as the home side and once as the visiting side. These would be written out thus:.
The football season proper is from March to August early autumn to late winter in Australia with finals being held in September and October.
Most of these hold annual semi-professional club competitions while the others oversee more than one league. Local semi-professional or amateur organisations and competitions are often affiliated to their state organisations.
The AFL is the de facto world governing body for Australian football. There are also a number of affiliated organisations governing amateur clubs and competitions around the world.
For almost all Australian football club competitions the aim is to win the Premiership. The premiership is always decided by a finals series.
The teams that occupy the highest positions on the ladder after the home-and-away season play off in a "semi-knockout" finals series, culminating in a single Grand Final match to determine the premiers.
Typically between four and eight teams contest the finals series. The team which finishes first on the ladder after the home-and-away season is referred to as a " minor premier ", but this usually holds little stand-alone significance, other than receiving a better draw in the finals.
At present, none of the top level national or state level leagues in Australia are large enough to warrant this structure.
Many related games have emerged from Australian football, mainly with variations of contact to encourage greater participation. These include Auskick played by children aged between 5 and 12 , kick-to-kick and its variants end-to-end footy and marks up , rec footy , 9-a-side footy , masters Australian football , handball and longest-kick competitions.
Players outside of Australia sometimes engage in related games adapted to available fields, like metro footy played on gridiron fields and Samoa rules played on rugby fields.
One such prominent example in use since is AFLX , a shortened variation of the game with seven players a side, played on a soccer -sized pitch.
The similarities between Australian football and the Irish sport of Gaelic football have allowed for the creation of a hybrid code known as international rules football.
The first international rules matches were contested in Ireland during the Australian Football World Tour. Australian rules football was played outside Australasia as early as when Australians studying at Edinburgh University and London University formed teams and competed in London.
Twenty countries participated in the Euro Cup and 23 countries have participated in the International Cup with both competitions prohibiting Australian players.
Over 20 countries have either affiliation or working agreements with the AFL. Many of the overseas-born AFL players have been Irish, as interest in recruiting talented Gaelic football players dates back to the start of the Irish experiment in the s.
The AFL also selects a team to represent Australia against an Irish team chosen by the Gaelic Athletic Association in the International Rules Series , utilising rules from both codes with the two countries taking turns hosting the series.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the game spread with the Australian diaspora to areas such as New Zealand and South Africa; however this growth went into rapid decline following World War I.
Most of the current amateur clubs and leagues in existence have developed since the s, when leagues began to be established in North America , Europe and Asia.
The sport developed a cult following in the United States when matches were broadcast on the fledgling ESPN network in the s.
This expansion has been further aided by multiculturalism and assisted by exhibition matches as well as exposure generated through players who have converted to and from other football codes.
The Australian Football International Cup , held triennially in Melbourne since , is the highest level of international competition.
Although Australian rules football has not yet been a full sport at the Olympic Games or Commonwealth Games, when Melbourne hosted the Summer Olympics , which included the MCG being the main stadium, Australian rules football was chosen as the native sport to be demonstrated as per International Olympic Committee rules.
Australian football is a sport rich in tradition and Australian cultural references, especially surrounding the rituals of gameday for players, officials and supporters.
Australian football has been an inspiration for writers and poets including Manning Clarke , Bruce Dawe and Philip Hodgins. Australian football has attracted more overall interest among Australians as measured by the Sweeney Sports report than any other football code, and, when compared with all sports throughout the nation, has consistently ranked first in the winter reports, and most recently third behind cricket and swimming in summer.
In , , registered participants played Australian football in Australia. In that year identities were inducted, including players, 10 coaches, 10 umpires, 10 administrators and six media representatives.
The elite Legend status was bestowed on 12 members of the Hall of Fame in Ron Barassi , Haydn Bunton Sr. The Legend status is the highest honour which can be bestowed on an Australian footballer.
The following fourteen members have been promoted to the status of "Legend" since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Australian rules disambiguation and Football in Australia.
Contact sport invented in Melbourne. A ruckman leaps above his opponent to win the hit-out during a ball-up. Names of Australian rules football.
History of Australian rules football. Origins of Australian rules football. List of Australian rules football clubs by date of establishment.
Interstate matches in Australian rules football. Laws of Australian rules football. For terminology, see Glossary of Australian rules football.
Australian rules football tactics and skills. Australian rules football playing field. Some of the important skills of Australian football.
Clockwise from upper left: Variations of Australian rules football. Relationship between Australian rules football and Gaelic football.
Geography of Australian rules football. Australian rules football culture. Australian rules football in popular culture.
Australian Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved 22 November Australian Football Official title of the code ". Retrieved 20 June Events That Shaped Australia.
Retrieved 18 December Forget the medals, these sports are chasing the gold" 8 May Retrieved 9 October Archived from the original on 19 February Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 4 April Retrieved 18 June The Complete Guide to Australian Football.
The Weekly Review Stonnington. Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 19 June Myths and Milestones in the History of Sport.
Twopeny and the Establishment of Australian Football in Adelaide". The International Journal of the History of Sport.
Aussie rules a dominant sport in early Queensland" , The Courier-Mail. Retrieved 24 April Retrieved 3 December Retrieved 21 April Whatever Happened to Australian Rules?
Hobart, Tasmania, Libra Books. Retrieved 2 November St Kilda want two games in Auckland" , The Age. Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 28 June Retrieved 13 September Retrieved 11 November The Australian Game of Football: Retrieved 29 November Retrieved 28 April Who your club plays".
Retrieved 1 May Archived from the original on 25 January The Sociology of Sports: Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 23 May Retrieved 5 December Retrieved 8 June The Sydney Morning Herald.
Hawks overtake Pies, Dons slide". Retrieved 28 September The top 50 TV programs of " , AdNews. Retrieved 12 April Retrieved 2 October Archived from the original on 4 February Archived from the original PDF on 13 October The Sunday Age Melbourne.
Archived from the original on 22 May A Game of Our Own: The Origins of Australian Football. First Wild Man of Australian Sport. The History of Australian Rules Football.
Hess, Rob; Lenkic, Brunette Hibbins, Gillian; Mancini, Anne Running with the Ball: The English Origins of Australian Football".
Nauright, John; Parrish, Charles Sports Around the World: History, Culture, and Practice. The defunct XFL used a modified Kansas Plan which, upon the first team scoring, required the opponent to score the same or greater number of points in the same or fewer downs i.
Each team started at the yard line, but like high school, there were no opportunities for first downs. The league also banned field goals except on a fourth down.
Three minutes before the start of the game, the referee meets with captains from both teams for a coin toss. The visiting team calls the toss.
The winner of the toss may defer their choice to the start of the second half, or they may take first choice of:. At the start of the second half, the team that did not choose first either because they deferred their choice or because they lost the toss gets the first choice of options.
If a game goes to overtime, a coin toss is held before the start of overtime, but tosses are not held before the start of subsequent overtime periods.
In college, for example, the loser of the toss to start overtime has first choice in the second overtime period. In high school, the coin toss may be held between the captains or coaches earlier before the start of the game.
At three minutes before kickoff, the captains meet for a simulated coin toss, where the referee announces the results of the earlier toss.
The XFL did not implement a coin toss; instead an event took place called the "opening scramble", in which one player from each team fought to recover a football 20 yards away to determine possession.
Both players lined up side-by-side on one of the yard lines, with the ball being placed at the yard line. At the whistle, the two players would run toward the ball and attempt to gain possession; whichever player gained possession first was allowed to choose possession as if he had won a coin toss in other leagues.
The rules vary from the college level to the professional level. In the NFL, unless you are tagged by an opposing player or give yourself up, you are not down.
A player carrying the ball the runner is downed when any of the following occurs:. The majority of a football game takes place on plays, or downs , that begin at the line of scrimmage.
The officials spot the ball place it in a designated spot on the field on the line of scrimmage and declare it ready for play. The width of the spotted football defines the width of the neutral zone , an area of the field no player other than the snapper may position himself in or above before the snap.
Each team has its own line of scrimmage, thought of as a vertical plane from sideline to sideline that passes through the point of the ball nearest its own goal line.
A typical offense is made up of a quarterback , five offensive linemen , two wide receivers , a running back , a fullback , and a tight end , however teams will vary their personnel on the field to fit any given play.
A quarterback is essentially the leader of the offense. It is most often their responsibility to pass along the play called to the rest of the players in the huddle before any given play.
A quarterback is the primary ball handler on offense. It is their responsibility to call the snap count for the ball to enter play.
Once the ball is hiked into play, it is their job to either hand the ball off to one of their running backs, or scout the field for an open receiver to throw the ball to.
In some instances, the quarterback will run the ball themselves. A quarterback is guarded by their offensive linemen. The offensive line is made up of a left and right tackle , a left and right guard , and a center.
An offensive line has two different jobs. When the offense runs a pass play, it is their job to guard the quarterback from the defense that are rushing.
When the offense runs a run play, it is their job to clear a path for the running back to run through. The running back also has multiple roles.
They will either take the ball from the quarterback and run, move up and help the offensive line block, or go out and catch a pass.
While the role of the fullback is deteriorating currently among professional leagues, it is their primary responsibility to lead the running back.
Running backs and fullbacks are sometimes also called a halfback, a wingback, or a slotback. Like the running back, the tight end also has multiple roles.
They will either help the offensive line protect the quarterback, block on run plays, or run or catch the ball themselves. The wide receivers primary role is to run out into the field of play and catch the ball, although they will also block in some instances.
The players on offense must arrange themselves in a formation , all behind their line of scrimmage that is, on their side of the ball.
For reasons of safety and competitive balance, there are strict rules which define the way in which the offensive players may line up.
Seven players must line up directly on the line of scrimmage while four players line up behind the line of scrimmage. Within this formation, there are six eligible receivers who may receive a forward pass during play.
These eligible receivers are either the running back, fullback, tight end, or wide receivers. The remaining five linemen, often called interior linemen do not normally handle the ball during a play.
Because of these rules, various leagues of American football have enacted strict rules of uniform numbering so officials may more easily judge which players were eligible and which were not at the start of a play.
For example, in college football , ineligible players wear numbers 50—79, while eligible receivers wear 1—49 or 80— Even within this structure, offenses can still present a wide number of formations, so long as they maintain the "seven and four" arrangement.
Receivers, for example, may play close to the other linemen or they may play some distance down the line of scrimmage, where they would sometimes be called split ends.
Of the four backs, they may play behind the linemen, or may play "split out" to provide additional wide receivers. These additional receivers can be flankers if they play split far wide, but still in the backfield or slot receivers if they play in the "slot" between the split end and the rest of the offensive line.
The players on defense may arrange themselves in any manner, as long as all players are "behind the line" that is, on the side of the line nearest their own end zone.
Players who line up opposite the offensive line are called defensive linemen , usually with one or two defensive tackles in the middle a single defensive tackle is often called the nose guard or nose tackle and with one defensive end on each side.
The defensive line is also most often the first set of players the opponent must get through should they choose to run the ball. Behind the linemen are the linebackers.
A linebackers job can be any number of things, including trying to rush the opposing teams quarterback, stopping the opponents running back on run plays, or covering the opponents tight end or wide receivers.
Positioned opposite the wide receivers are the cornerbacks. Their primary responsibility is to cover the wide receivers. Farthest back from the line are the safeties , usually in the middle of the field behind the linebackers.
The safeties are the last line of defense against the opponent. The linemen and linebackers close to the line of scrimmage, are often referred to as playing "in the box".
Players outside "the box" usually cornerbacks and safeties are collectively referred to as the "secondary". A scrimmage down begins with a snap , where the center throws or hands the ball backward to one of the backs, usually the quarterback.
The quarterback then either hands the ball off to a back, throws the ball, or runs with it himself. The down ends when the ball becomes dead see below.
The ball is typically next spotted where the ball became dead; however, if it became dead outside the hash marks, it is brought in on the same yard line to the nearest hash mark.
This spot becomes the line of scrimmage for the next play. In the case of an incomplete forward pass, the ball is returned to the spot where it was last snapped to begin the next play.
A fumbled ball that goes out of bounds is declared dead and possession remains with the team that most recently had control of the ball.
The nearest official typically blows his whistle after the ball becomes dead to alert the players that the down has already ended.
If the ball is alive and the official sounds an inadvertent whistle , then the ball still becomes dead, but the team in possession of the ball may elect to have the down replayed or take the spot where the ball was declared dead.
If the ball was loose from a fumble, then the ball can be put into play at the spot of the fumble. If the ball was in flight from a kick or a pass, then the down is always replayed.
A free kick is a down which does not occur from scrimmage. The kicking team begins behind the ball, while the receiving team must remain at least 10 yards downfield before the ball is kicked.
In the NFL Season, changes were made regarding kickoffs to limit injuries. Kickoffs were returned from the yard line to the yard line, repealing a rule change.
In addition, players on the kickoff coverage team cannot line up more than 5 yards behind the kickoff line, minimizing running starts and thus reducing the speed of collisions.
In most cases, the ball is kicked as far as possible typically 40 to 70 yards , after which a player of the receiving team is usually able to secure possession since the members of the kicking team cannot start downfield until after the ball is kicked.
Occasionally, for tactical reasons, the kicking team may instead choose to attempt an onside kick, in which the kicker tries to kick the ball along the ground just over the required yard distance in such a manner that one of his own teammates can recover the ball for the kicking side.
If it is touched before ten yards, the ball is dead and a re-kick or spot of the ball will be rewarded to the receiving team. Once the ball carrier is downed, the play is whistled dead and the ball is placed by the officials at the point where the play ended; this spot then becomes the line of scrimmage for the ensuing play.
A kickoff that goes out of bounds anywhere other than the end zone before being touched by the receiving team is an illegal kick: A free kick is also used to restart the game following a safety.
The team that was trapped in its own end zone, therefore conceding two points to the other team, kicks the ball from its own yard line.
This can be a place kick in the NFL, a tee cannot be used , drop kick or punt. In the NFL and high school, a free kick may be taken on the play immediately after a fair catch ; see "fair catch kick" below.
The most common type of kick used is the place kick. For a place kick, the ball must first be snapped to a placeholder, who holds the ball upright on the ground with his fingertip so that it may be kicked.
Three points are scored if the ball crosses between the two upright posts and above the crossbar and remains over. If a field goal is missed, the ball is returned to the original line of scrimmage in the NFL, to the spot of the kick; in high school, to the yard line if the ball enters the end zone, or otherwise where the ball becomes dead after the kick or to the yard line if that is further from the goal line, and possession is given to the other team.
If the ball does not go out of bounds, the other team may catch the kicked ball and attempt to advance it, but this is usually not advantageous. One official is positioned under each goalpost; if either one rules the field goal no good, then the field goal is unsuccessful.
A successful field goal is signaled by an official extending both arms vertically above the head. A team that successfully kicks a field goal kicks off to the opposing team on the next play.
After a touchdown, the scoring team attempts a try for 1 or 2 points see below. A successful touchdown is signaled by an official extending both arms vertically above the head.
A touchdown is worth six points, except in the defunct WFL where it was worth seven points. For statistical purposes, the player who advances the ball into or catches it in the end zone is credited with the touchdown.
If a forward pass was thrown on the play, the throwing player is also credited with a passing touchdown.
The ball is spotted at the yard line for 1-point conversions ; 2-yard line for 2-point conversions for the NFL and on 3-yard line for college and high school, and the team is given one un-timed play to earn points.
The uncommon safety is scored if a player causes the ball to become dead in his own end zone; two points are awarded to the opposing usually defending team.
This can happen if a player is either downed or goes out of bounds in the end zone while carrying the ball, or if he fumbles the ball, and it goes out of bounds in the end zone.
A safety is also awarded to the defensive team if the offensive team commits a foul which is enforced in its own end zone.
A safety is not awarded if a player intercepts a pass or receives a kick in his own end zone and is downed there. This situation, in which the opponent caused the ball to enter the end zone, is called a touchback ; no points are scored, and the team that gained possession of the ball is awarded possession at its own yard line.
If the interception or reception occurs outside the end zone, and the player is carried into the end zone by momentum, the ball is placed at the spot of the catch and no safety is awarded.
A safety is signaled by a referee holding both palms together above the head, fingertips pointing upwards. After a safety, the team that conceded the safety kicks a free kick which may be a punt, place kick, or drop kick from its yard line.
A free kick see above may be taken on the play immediately after any fair catch of a punt. The ball must be held on the ground by a member of the kicking team or drop kicked; a tee may not be used.
High school kickers may use a tee. This is both a field goal attempt and a free kick; if the ball is kicked between the goal posts, three points are scored for the kicking team.
This is the only case where a free kick may score points. This method of scoring is extremely rare, last successfully completed in the NFL by Ray Wersching in It is only advantageous when a team catches a very short punt with very little time left.
Note that a team is unlikely to be punting with only a few seconds left in a half or overtime, and it is rarer still for punts to be caught near field goal range.
The game is officiated by a crew of three to seven officials. Every crew will consist of a referee , who is generally in charge of the game and watches action on the quarterback and in the offensive backfield; an umpire , who handles spotting the ball and watches action on the offensive line; and a head linesman , who supervises placement of the down box and line-to-gain chains.
The crew may also consist of a line judge , back judge , field judge and side judge , in the order listed: Officials are selected by the teams in advance or appointed by the governing league.
While the majority of officials at lower levels only officiate games on a part-time basis, the NFL is implementing a new system where seven officials will become full-time employees of the league, one for each official position i.
During the game, the officials are assisted in the administration of the game by other persons, including: Because football is a high- contact sport requiring a balance between offense and defense, many rules exist that regulate equality, safety, contact, and actions of players on each team.
It is very difficult to always avoid violating these rules without giving up too much of an advantage. Thus, an elaborate system of fouls and penalties has been developed to "let the punishment fit the crime" and maintain a balance between following the rules and keeping a good flow of the game.
Players are constantly looking for ways to find an advantage that stretches the limitations imposed by the rules. Also, the frequency and severity of fouls can make a large difference in the outcome of a game, so coaches are constantly looking for ways to minimize the number and severity of infractions committed by their players.
It is a common misconception that the term "penalty" is used to refer both to an infraction and the penal consequence of that infraction.
A foul is a rule infraction for which a penalty is prescribed. In most cases when a foul occurs, the offending team will be assessed a penalty of 5, 10 or 15 yards, depending on the foul.
Also, in most cases, if the foul is committed while the ball is in play, the down will be replayed from the new position for example, if the offense commits a foul on a first-down play, the next play will still be first down, but the offense may have to go 15 yards, or farther, to achieve another first down.In college and high school football, an overtime procedure the Kansas plan ensures that each team has equal opportunity to score. The ball must be held on the ground by a member of the kicking team or drop kicked; a tee may michael jordan spannweite be used. In high school football, individual state associations can choose any overtime format they want, or even elect to not play overtime at all ties stand in this case. Denver won the game on the first play in overtime, an yard xnxvideos pass from Tim Tebow to Demaryius Thomas. Once the measurement is finished and the ball is placed at the proper location spottedthe referee will then signal for the clock to restart. If scores are level at the end of finals matches including gebrauchtwagen checkliste tüv grand finalfree bonus casino time is required to determine the winner. VFL club University left the league and went into recess due to netbet casino auszahlung casualties. The rezultati live of the coin toss can choose to give the ball or receive the ball. This method of scoring is extremely rare, last successfully completed in the NFL by Ray Wersching in Each team receives three timeouts per half if the game goes to overtime, each team receives additional wilhelmshavener handballvereinmaking for a total of six timeouts per team in a regulation game. Windows 8.1 passwort umgehen to four interchange reserve players may be swapped for those on the field at any time during the game. When the offense runs a pass play, it is their job to guard the quarterback from the defense that are rushing.